Cell Biology Test Questions


1. Individual cells are usually very small because

A. small cells contain a greater quantity of enzymes than large cells.

B. materials move in and out of small cells less efficiently than for large cells.

C. the cell membrane encloses the cell and prevents it from increasing in size.

D. the larger the surface area to volume ratio of a cell, the more efficient it is.

E. water enters into small cells by osmosis more slowly than into large cells.


2. Each of the following is a cell organelle except one. Which one of these is NOT a cell organelle?

a) mitochondrion     b) lysosome     c) cytoplasm          d) endoplasmic reticulum


3. What structure is common to ALL cells?

a) Chloroplast                 b) Cell membrane             c) Cell wall

d) Mitochondria                                          e) Flagella


4. When a large proportion of a cell's ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, it is a sign that the cell is specialized to:

a. Manufacture glucose for storage

b. Manufacture phospholipids for cell growth

c. Perform photosynthesis with high efficiency

d. Manufacture proteins for export


5. In mitosis, which condition is most characteristic of metaphase?

a. replication of the cell's DNA.

b. reformation of the nuclear envelope.

c. positioning of chromosomes on the equatorial plane of the cell.

d. separation of pairs of sister chromatids (the two halves of a duplicated chromosome).

e. movement of centrioles to the poles of the cell.


6. During the final stage of cell division, the mitotic apparatus disappears, the

chromosomes become attenuated, the centrioles duplicate and split, the nuclear membrane becomes

reconstituted and the nucleolus reappears. This phase of cell division is known as:

a) prophase                   b) metaphase                 c) anaphase          d) telophase


7. In cell division, the phase following the anaphase is known as:

a) prophase                   b) metaphase       c) telophase         d) extophase


8. The chromosomes of a eukaryotic cell are located in the:

a) mitochondria

b) nucleus

c) ribosome  

d) endoplasma

9. Which is found in the nucleus?

         (A.) ribosome               (B.) centrosome            (C.) vacuole

         (D.) lysosome               (E.) chromosome


10. Which structure composed mainly of proteins and lipids, aids in maintaining homeostasis in the cell?          

(A.) chromosome        (B.) centrosome     (C.) nucleolus  (D.) cell membrane      (E.) cell wall


11. The organelle most directly involved in cellular aerobic respiration is the

  (A.) ribosome      (B.) mitochondrion      (C.) nucleus    (D.) lysosome     (E.) golgi apparatus


12. The rigidity (support) of a plant cell is due primarily to the presence of the

(A.) DNA            (B.) centrosomes          (C.) cell membrane         (D.) cell wall        (E.) lysosomes


13. In the laboratory, when iodine solution is used to stain a cell, the cell structure most readily seen is the       

(A.) vacuole                 (B.) cytoplasm             (C.) golgi complex      (D.) lysosome             (E.) nucleus


14. Which structure is found ONLY in animal cells?

         (A.) cell wall        (B.) vacuoles       (C.) centrioles      (D.) chloroplasts            (E.) ribosomes


15. The organelle most closely associated with the manufacture of proteins within the cell is the

         (A.) ribosome      (B.) lysosome      (C.) nucleolus      (D.) cell wall      (E.) cell membrane


16. The cell's primary site of ATP production is the

(A.) mitochondria        (B.) lysosomes            (C.) nucleus (  D.) nucleolus   (E.) vacuoles


17. Which cell parts are only found in plant cells?

a. chloroplast and ribosomes                              c. chloroplast and mitochondria

b. mitochondria and ribosomes                          d. chloroplast and cell wall


18. Site of protein synthesis  (where proteins are assembled)

                   a.  lysosome                c. vacuole                             e. centriole

                   b.  ribosome                d. endoplasmic reticulum


19. Aids animal cells  in cellular division (mitosis)

a.  lysosome                         c. vacuole                                      e.  centriole

b.  ribosome                         d. endoplasmic reticulum


20. Storage compartment  in a cell

                   a.  lysosome                c. vacuole                             e.  centriole

                   b.  ribosome                d. endoplasmic reticulum


Short Answer Questions


1. Cell membranes

The symptoms of CF occur because the gene codes for a transport protein in lung tissue responsible for transporting chloride ions from the interior lung surface into the cell.  If this protein is faulty, chloride ions are not moved from one side to the other, and thus the ions build up in the fluid immediately outside the cell.


a. Use this diagram to help explain how transport proteins work.






b. Why do cells need transport proteins?




c. How would the failure of the transport protein in CF individuals affect the lung cells and interior of the lungs?





2. Matching

a. Endoplasmic reticulum


b. Chloroplast


c. Nucleus


d. Mitochondria


e. Lysosomes


f. Vacuoles


g. Chromosome


h. Ribosome


i. Plasma membrane


j. Spindle fibers

1.  control center of the cell


____ 2. series of connecting pathways in a cell


____ 3. move chromosomes through cytoplasm


____ 4. protein factory in the cell


____ 5. site of aerobic respiration


____ 6. bilayer of lipids and proteins


____ 7. carries hereditary information


____ 8. site of photosynthesis


____ 9. contains digestive enzymes


____ 10. fluid-filled storage organelle


3. Completion Section


a. The _______________ selectively regulates the flow of materials to and from the cell.


b. This structure found within the nucleus contains much RNA. This structure is called the _______________.


c. These structures are used to package secretions for export from the cell. These structures are called the _______________.


d. The _______________ is found only in plants. It is composed mostly of cellulose and gives the plant cell support.


e. The _______________ pumps excess water from the cell helping to maintain homeostasis.


f. _______________ is the movement of materials from a higher to a lower concentration.


g. _______________ transport involves processes such as osmosis and diffusion.


h. _______________ is the pinching in of materials through the cell membrane.


i. _______________ is the engulfing of materials by an organism or a cell with its psuedopodia.


j. _______________ is the diffusion of water.


k. _______________ transport is the movement of materials from lower concentration to higher concentration as in the processes of phagocytosis and pinocytosis.


l. _______________ transport requires energy in the form of ATP to occur.

4. A freshwater organism is placed in a 20% saline solution. (20 pts.)


(a.) Explain why water moves through the cell membrane faster than does the salt in the saline solution.


(b.) Indicate the direction of osmotic flow using a picture.



(c.) Explain what could happen to the organism


5. Directions:  Match the cell part to its function.  Place your answer in the space provided.


                        1.    Cell Wall                           A.    Converts glucose into ATP.


                        2.    Chloroplast                       B.    Contains nucleic acids and controls the

                                                                               protein synthesis of the cell.


                        3.    Lysosome                        C.    Storage structure in plant cell which      

                                                                               contains water and ions.


                        4.    Mitochondria                    D.    Found in plants and is composed of

                                                                               cellulose.  Functions to support cell.

                        5.    Vacuole                          

                                                                        E.    Manufactures proteins.              

                        6.    Centriole

                                                                        F.    Contains digestive enzymes.

                        7.    Cytosol                            

                                                                        G.    Tunnels which transport proteins

                        8.    Cell Membrane                        

                                                                        H.    Structures found in plants which

                        9.    Nucleus                                   trap sunlight energy in glucose.


                        10.  Endoplasmic Reticulum    I.     Packages, modifies, and secretes



                        11.  Ribosome                         J.    Jelly-like fluid which surrounds and

                                                                               supports the cell's organelles.

                        12.  Golgi Apparatus                                                                                                                                                                 


K.  Regulates transport into cell & isolates cellular environment


L. Found only in animal cells;  organizes chromosome movement in mitosis.


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